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in  2014 


J^esson  VII 


New  York  City 

London  Paris         Melbourne  Delhi 


Copyright,  1919,  1926  and  1929 
By  The  Pelman  Institute  of  America 





Foreword    -     --     --     --  -5 

I — The  Unity  of  the  Mind  5 

II — The  Four  Stages  of  Memory  6 

III —  Registration — Impression  6 

IV —  Retention    and    the    Stream  of 
Thought      -     -     -     -  9 

Sequence  in  Events. 
The  Mind- Wanderer. 

Connected  and  Unconnected  Facts  and  Ideas. 

Order  and  Classification. 

On  Arranging  Experiences. 

Unifying  Knowledge. 

Classification  and  Knowledge. 

The  Need  of  Definition. 

Marks  of  the  Trained  Mind. 

V — The  Pelman  Principles  of  Mental 
Connection    ------  25 

The  Primary  Laws  of  Association. 
The  Laws  of  Association  Illustrated. 
The  Application  of  Analysis. 

VI —  Useful  Applications  of  Association  36 

VII—  Recall  39 

The  Recollection  of  Isolated  Facts. 
An  Actress  on  Memory. 

VIII — So-Called  "Systems  of  Mnemonics"  42 

Legitimate  Use  of  Artificial  Aids. 
Recollection  in  Things  Themselves. 

IX — Recognition    ------  46 

X-XI-Don'ts  and  This  Do  -     -     -     -  47-48 

XII —  Mental  Exercises  -----  49 

XIII —  Health  Exercises  -     -     -     -     -  54 

XIV —  Appendix — Card  Memory              -  63 





Perhaps  you  are  one  of  the  many  who  com- 
plains that  you  cannot  remember,  names,  dates, 
facts,  faces  and  other  things.  As  a  result  of  the 
lesson  on  "Knowledge  and  the  Senses,"  you  now 
gather  daily  a  larger  amount  of  material  than 
ever  before.  How  are  you  to  handle  this  in- 
creasing harvest  of  facts  and  ideas?  This  lesson 
gives  you  the  laws  of  memory  and  mental  con- 
nections. By  applying  these  laws  you  can  util- 
ize your  memory  powers  effectively,  and  im- 
prove your  ability  to  organize  ideas. 


In  Lesson  II,  you  learned  that  the  mind  is  a 
unity.  For  convenience  we  often  refer  to  the 
various  aspects  of  the  mind  such  as  feeling, 
thinking  and  willing.  These  three  aspects  of  the 
mind  are  not  distinct  separate  compartments. 
These  mental  traits  are  all  closely  interrelated. 
For  example,  in  Lesson  IV,  you  learned  that  in- 
terest (feeling),  attention  and  use  are  all  essen- 



tial  if  one  hopes  to  develop  his  senses.  Again  in 
Lesson  V,  you  learned  Right  Willing  results 
from  Right  Feeling  and  Right  Thinking.  Pel- 
manism,  recognizing  the  unity  of  the  mind  has 
always  insisted  that  the  mind  should  be  trained 
as  a  whole — an  entity.  As  you  proceed  in  this 
lesson  you  will  recognize  that  in  earlier  lessons 
you  were  also  learning  how  to  develop  good 


Memory  cannot  return  to  you  what  you  have 
never  entrusted  to  it.  Impressionor  registra- 
tion_of  materials  to  be  remembered  is  therefore 
the  first  stage  in  developing  good  memories. 

Memory  cannot  return  to  you  what  has  not 
been  retained.   Retention  is  the  second  factor. 

Retention  of  material  is  of  no  value,  unless  it 
can  be  recalled  or  recollected.  Recall,  or  recol- 
lection is  the  third  stage  of  memory. 

For  some  memory  material,  we  need  not  only 
the  ability  to  recall,  but  also  the  ability  to  recog- 
nize the  facts  or  ideas  given  back  by  memory  as 
belonging  to  our  past.  Recognition  is  the  last 
of  the  four  stages  involved  in  memory. 


Lesson  IV,  "Knowledge  and  the  Senses," 
showed  you  the  importance  of  sensory  impres- 
sions.  To  remember  everything  you  experience 



would  be  a  distinct  disadvantage.  To  forget  is 
almost  as  valuable  as  to  remember  becausetf "3ll 
experiences  were  retained  you  would  not  be  able 
to  distinguish  the  important  from  the  irrelevant 

In  short,  you  must  select  the  things  you  desire 
to  remember.  Interest  aids  you  to  make  the  se- 
lection. What  is  your  life  work?  (Review 
Lesson  III.)  What  is  your  hobby?  What  are 
your  life  interests?  The  answers  to  these  and 
similar  questions  indicate  some  of  the  materials 
you  should  select  to  remember. 

Form  the  habit  of  attending  to  the  things  and 
ideas  that  pertain  to  your  main  life  interests. 
To  attempt  to  remember  qveqrthinn|-  me^i^  to 
Weaken  your  memory  herayse  the  habit  of  scat- 
termgjj],terests  resul^  retention  of  little 
or  nothing.  Your  behavior  is  controlled  in  part 
by  habits,  good  and  bad.  Good  habits  underlie 
good  memories,  bad  habits  underlie  bad  mem- 
ories. To  break  a  bad  habit  requires  the  substi- 
tution of  a  good  habit.  Develop  your  interests 
and  the  habit  of  selecting  things  to  remember 
which  are  related  to  these  interests  will  grow. 

Approach  the  innumerable  experiences  which 
daily  assail  your  senses  with  the  intention  to  re- 
member the  j^v*frn™t^min^s. Confidence  in 
your  ability  to  remember  is  the  greater  part  of 
the  battle.  If^ySiTTn'^aninsurance  broker  you 
glance  through  the  newspaper.  You  note  every- 
thing related  to  insurance  because  your  life  work 




gives  you  a  mental  set  which  enables  you  to 
grasp  this  sort  of  material.  Since  you  do  not 
possess  a  one-track  mind,  your  hobby,  radio,  di- 
rects your  attention  to  an  article  which  carries  the 
news  that  an  excellent  broadcasting  station  you 
have  never  been  able  to  tune  in  on,  has  had  its 
wave  length  and  power  changed.  That  evening 
finds  you  without  conscious  effort  turning  the 
dials  of  your  set  in  an  attempt  to  get  the  station. 

As  you  ride  in  the  street  car  you  often  find 
yourself  reading  the  advertisements.  An  anal- 
ysis of  the  kind  of  advertisement  which  attracts 
your  attention  will  indicate  that  it  appeals  to  the 
basic  inborn  tendencies  common  to  all  mankind. 
The  inborn  tendencies  most  often  touched  are 
hunger,  self-preservation  of  life,  love  of  adorn- 
ment, and  the  sex  instinct.  Attention  due  to  the 
appeal  of  the  instincts  is  called  involuntary  at- 
tention because  such  attention  is  given  without 
conscious  effort.  Attention  that  requires  effort 
and  will  is  known  as  voluntary  attention.  One 
of  the  chief  tasks  of  the  school  and  of  all  life  is 
to  make  voluntary  attention  approximate  in  its 
force  involuntary  attention.  Interest  is  the 
drive,  the  dynamic  force  that  causes  effort  to  de- 
sert voluntary  attention  which  in  reality  then  be- 
comes involuntary  attention,  or  what  the 
psychologists  call  derived  primary  attention.  In 
school  you  may  have  detested  geography  but 
now,  due  to  the  radio  or  the  epoch-making 
flights  of  Charles  A.  Lindbergh,  you  look  for- 



ward  to  reading  about  things  geographical  with 
joy.  Interest  has  caused  attention  to  be  spon- 
taneous and  effortless.  Such  attention  insures 
good  registration,  which  comprises  the  first  stage 
in  memory. 


Retention  of  material  depends  upon  our  men- 
tal make-up,  the  impression,  and  the  way  in 
which  we  take  things  into  our  mind.  You  have 
learned  how  to  get  good  impressions.  How  are 
these  impressions  to  be  organized? 

Ask  yourself  this  question:  "Do  my  continu- 
ally changing  thoughts  and  feelings  follow  each 
other  at  random?"  Presuming  you  are  free  to 
think  the  matter  out  quietly,  take  a  sheet  of  pa- 
per and  jot  down  as  many  as  you  can  remember 
of  the  thoughts  of  the  past  hour.  It  is  now,  say 
9  p.  m.  At  8  p.  m.  you  were  sending  your  insur- 
ance money  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Company, 
and,  having  posted  the  letter,  you  returned  to 
the  reading  of  the  book  which  was  put  aside  for 
a  moment  or  two  in  order  to  remit  your  premium 
before  the  days  of  grace  elapsed.  You  read  for 
half-an-hourj  then  a  friend  called  and  you  dis- 
cussed politics  for  ten  minutes.  After  his  de- 
parture you  were  reminded  that  the  basement 
bell  did  not  ring,  and  you  attended  to  the  task  of 
repairing  it  till  nine  o'clock. 




On  analyzing  the  events  of  this  hour  a  little 
closely,  you  realize  that  there  is  a  definite  se- 
quence: thoughts  do  not  come  at  random,  but 
proceed  by  the  law  of  association.  While  you 
were  reading  your  book,  you  came  across  the 
word  "insurance  }"  you  were  reminded  of  the 
pressing  importance  of  dispatching  your  pre- 
mium before  it  was  too  late.  Having  done  this, 
your  interest  in  the  book  caused  you  to  return  to 
it,  and  for  half  an  hour  you  were  following  the 
hero  and  heroine  through  their  trials  and  tribu- 
lations. Then  there  was  a  break.  A  friend's 
call  and  his  ardent  feelings  about  certain  phases 
of  politics  transported  you  from  a  world  of  fic- 
tion to  a  world  of  fact.  You  went  at  the  business 
of  criticizing  your  friend's  viewpoint  hammer 
and  tongs  for  ten  minutes.  He  left,  perhaps 
only  half  convinced}  it  was  only  on  shaking 
hands  with  him  at  the  gate  that  you  remembered 
the  basement  bell.   You  repaired  it. 

Such  is  the  history  of  your  mental  hour.  All 
its  thinkings  form  a  link  of  associations  with  one 
inevitable  break,  that  of  the  friend's  visit.  Of 
course  you  could  have  avoided  this  if  you  had 
been  so  disposed.  You  could,  for  instance,  have 
seen  the  word  "insurance,"  and  even  thought  of 
your  insurance  policy  without  acting  upon  the 
thought}  and  you  could  have  refused  to  see  your 
friend  on  the  plea  that  you  were  busy.  By,.a.vaul- 
ingjhe  ch&aces-of  interruptionj  you  would  have 



secured  greater  concentration  and  obtained  a 
more  complete  command  over  the  thoughts  con- 
nected with  the  book. 


But  even  a  mind  that  wanders  thinks  according 
to  the  laws  of  association.  Let  us  see  how  this 
happens.  George  Copeland,  a  young  man  of 
twenty-three,  is  trying  to  devise  some  way  of 
spending  his  evening.  His  thoughts  for  about 
ten  minutes  are  revealed  by  the  following  words 
which  flash  through  his  mind:  Palace;  Charley } 
Miss  Turner;  fashions;  Wanamaker's;  Benson; 
South  America;  Patagonians;  advertising  evils; 
Greenwich  Village. 

He  began  by  wondering  what  was  the  best 
seat  he  could  afford  at  the  Palace;  and  then 
he  wondered  if  his  friend,  Charley,  could 
go  with  him;  from  Charley  he  immediately 
passed  to  Charley's  fiancee,  Miss  Turner;  and 
from  her  to  fashions,  frills  and  furbelows;  then 
he  thought  of  Wanamaker's  which  gave  rise  in 
his  mind  to  the  notion  of  his  own  firm.  His  next 
thoughts  were  of  the  office  staff,  especially  of 
Benson  who  had  robbed  the  safe,  and  skipped 
away  to  South  America.  That  reminded  him  of 
the  Patagonians  who  were  said  to  be  six  or  seven 
feet  high,  and  he  wondered  whether  a  man's 
height  could  be  raised,  as  the  advertisement  said. 
Here  he  paused  to  meditate  on  the  frauds  of  ad- 



vertisingj  and  on  the  way  beautiful  country  out- 
looks were  made  hideous.  He  was  just  thinking 
he  would  change  his  lodgings  to  a  better  section 
jf  the  city  than  Greenwich  Village,  when  Charley 
called  unexpectedly. 

Connected  Thinking — The  worst  mind-wan- 
derer in  the  world  has  thoughts  which  are  inti- 
mately connected  in  the  way  just  described,  even 
though  in  a  five  minutes'  reverie  he  may  begin 
with  a  thought  about  margarine  and  finish  up 
with  a  speculation  about  the  planet  of  Mars. 
The  mischief,  however,  is  often  serious.  A  mfm 
who  uses  his  thinking  powers  in  this  listless. fash- 
ion becomes  unable  to  fix  his  attention  on  any- 
thing for  long j  his  memory  develops  deplorable 
weaknesses  due  to  inattention;  and,  as  a  conse- 
quence, self-confidence  decreases  in  correspond- 
ing ratio.  No  doubt  there  are  times  when  we 
should  allow  the  mind  to  take  its  own  course,  or 
permit  the  lapse  in  which  we  find  ourselves. 
The  mind  must  not  be  drilled  unceasingly  5  it 
must  on  occasion  "stand  at  ease,"  as  in  the  con- 
versation of  a  social  evening.  But  when  business 
or  study  is  before  us,  and  we  have  a  program  to 
fill,  hour  by  hour,  the  more  consistently  we  fol- 
low the  demands  of  attention,  the  better  it  is  for 
our  mental  powers  generally.  In  this  lesson  we 
shall  deal  with  the  well  known  laws  of  associa- 
tion under  the  general  heading  of  the  Pelman 
Principles  of  Mental  Connection. 




If  you  take  a  random  list  of  words  you  find 
it  rather  difficult  to  recall  them,  because  they  are 
not  so  grouped  as  to  be  an  organic  whole.  Here 
is  such  a  list:  domey  ay  glass y  manyy  ofy  white y 
eternity y  lifey  stainsy  radiancey  ofy  coloredy  they 
like.  As  a  mere  list  of  words  it  seems  to  convey 
no  meaning — but  when  Shelley  used  them  he 
arranged  them  thus: 

Life,  like  a  dome  of  many-colored  glass, 
Stains  the  white  radiance  of  Eternity.1 

What  a  difference! 

The  introduction  of  method  by  means  of 
grammatical  arrangement,  and  the  infusion  of 
exalted  feeling,  turns  an  apparently  meaningless 
group  of  words  into  poetry  of  the  highest  order. 
We  shall  proceed,  first  of  all,  to  point  the  intel- 
lectual moral.  There  may  be  in  your  mind 
much  that  is  excellent  in  itself,  but  it  fails  to  find 
expression  because  the  material  is  not  arranged. 
Facts  and  ideas  are  scattered  round  in  barren  iso- 
lation which  should  be  gathered  into  fertile 

Now  the  object  of  this  lesson  is  to  provide  a 
method  whereby  you  will  be  able  not  only  to 
think  in  a  concentrated  manner,  thus  avoiding 
the  waste  of  mind-wandering,  but  to  reap  the 
harvest  of  your  mental  efforts.   Such  a  result  is 

1  Adonais. 



worth  working  for,  and  if  you  are  at  all  keen 
about  it  you  will  easily  master  the  elementary 
technique  of  subsequent  pages. 

Read  the  following  fifteen  words,  once  only, 
and  see  how  many  you  can  write  down  in  the 
order  given. 

Town  Lens 
Camera  Continent 
Cat  Glass 
Island  Man 
Window  Africa 
Fur  House 
Photographer  Animal 

In  all  probability  your  efforts  will  not  be  a 
conspicuous  success.  Let  us  arrange  them,  how- 
ever, in  a  connected  order;  then,  after  reading 
through  the  list,  once  only,  try  to  write  them 
down  from  memory. 
















This  time  your  success  will  astonish  you. 
Each  idea  in  the  rearranged  series  of  fifteen 
words  has  an  obvious  association  with  the  idea 



immediately  preceding  it,  and  with  the  idea 
immediately  following  it.  The  first  list  shows 
the  difficulty  of  remembering  unconnected 
ideas  j  the  second  list  exhibits  the  ease  of  recol- 
lection when  a  natural  association  exists.  Our 
object,  however,  is  not  merely  to  increase  mem- 
ory^power,  but  to  assist  you  in  the  development 
of  alogical  and  creative  mind.  It  wURbe  a  great 
advantage,  no  doubt,  to  arrange  groups  of  data 
in  such  a  related  manner  as  to  be  able  to  recall 
them  with  ease;  and  we  shall  show  you  how  this 
is  done.  But  it  will  be  a  still  greater  advantage 
to  be  able  to  focus  your  attention  on  the  true  re- 
lationships of  a  subject,  and  to  arrive  at  your 
own  conclusions,  unaided. 


The  superiority  of  the  second  list  of  words 
lies  in  its  g^^fi  The  first  list  was  a  "higgledy- 
piggledy5raffair.  In  the  second,  we  arranged 
the  words  according  to  the  principles  of  mental 
connection,  and  the  haphazard  element  gave 
place  to  system.  , 

There  is  another  sphere  in  which  order  is  the 
secret,  and  that  is  the  sphere  of  classification. 
We  are  all  classifiers,  whether  we  know  it  or 
not.  The  boy  who  brings  the  newspapers  round 
every  morning  is  a  classifier,  but  he  never  calls 
himself  by  that  name;  and  if  he  were  to  ask  the 
boy  from  a  competing  news-agent's,  whether 
he,  too,  had  "classified"  his  customers,  the  sec- 



ond  boy  would  probably  misunderstand.  Both 
boys  are  classifiers:  they  do  not  grab  an  armful 
of  papers,  then  begin  to  deliver  them,  going 
here,  there,  and  everywhere,  often  visiting  some 
streets  three  times.  Like  the  postman,  they 
classify  their  addresses,  and  organize  the  whole 
journey  so  as  to  deliver  the  newspapers  without 
going  over  the  same  ground  twice.  Similarly 
the  boy  at  the  railway  bookstall  is  a  classifier  j 
he  arranges  his  magazines  and  papers  in  a  man- 
ner that  not  only  appeals  to  the  customer's  eye, 
but  enables  him  to  find  at  once  whatever  is  re- 
quired by  a  purchaser. 

Examples  of  Classification — Classification,  as 
a  word,  is  usually  associated  with  the  study  of 
science,  or  of  logic,  but,  as  may  be  seen  from  the 
illustrations  just  given,  it  is  a  method  employed 
by  all  who  have  to  deal  with  masses  of  articles. 
Without  classification  the  work  of  distributing 
goods  would  be  endless.  It  is  a  method  used  by 
the  librarian.  How  else  could  he  find  the  books 
that  are  wanted?  Whichever  way  we  turn  we 
find  this  work  of  classification  going  on;  and 
where  it  is  not  carried  out  efficiently  there  is  con- 
fusion and  failure. 

Here  is  a  mechanic  wno  uses  a  number  of 
drills,  which  are  kept  in  a  box  at  his  side.  When 
he  changes  a  drill,  he  has  to  turn  over  perhaps 
ten  or  twelve  before  he  fingers  the  right  one, 
thus  wasting  time  and  movement.  Someone 
suggests  that  the  drills  should  be  classified, 



marked,  and  stuck  in  a  "drill  plate"  in  the  order 
of  size.  This  is  done,  and  the  gain  in  speed  and 
accuracy  is  considerable,  for  the  mechanic  sees 
the  drills  standing  up  like  a  set  of  organ  pipes, 
and  reaches  for  the  size  he  wants  without  touch- 
ing the  others.  Classification  in  the  workshop  is 
just  as  necessary  as  it  is  in  the  laboratory  of  the 


Now,  in  order  to  bring  the  matter  home  to 
you,  we  are  about  to  ask  a  personal  question. 
"Have  you  learned  to  classify  the  facts  you  deal 
with^every  day,  usually  described  as  Experi- 
ence'?" Do  you  arrange,  according  to  a  plan, 
all  the  newthings  you  learn,  or  do  you  accumu- 
late them  in  a  general  heap?  For  instance,  if 
you  pick  up  a  popular  paper  and  read  that  a  cer- 
tain burglar  wrote  a  book  while  serving  a  sen-  f 
tence,  do  you  simply  say  "He  must  have  been 
a  unique  burglar"  and  then  forget  the  matter, 
or  do  you  immediately  place  the  fact  in  its  proper 
association  with  other  books,  some  of  them  fa- 
mous, which  have  been  written  in  prison?  If 
you  do,  then  your  powers  work  on  the  principles 
of  mental  connection,  you  classify  your  knowl- 
edge as  it  comes  to  you.  If  you  do  noty  you  will 
find  that  you  forget  half  of  what  you  read,  be- 
cause its  associations  are  weak.  You  will  also 
experience  more  difficulty  in  learning,  and  new 
ideas  will  be  slow  in  coming. 



Untidy  Minds — Such  are  the  evils  of  having 
a  disorderly  mind,  in  which  impressions,  ideas, 
convictions,  fancies,  and  all  the  phenomena  of 
consciousness  are  so  poorly  arranged  that  one 
never  knows  where  to  find  anything  when  he 
wants  it.  Classification  is  the  introduction  of 
order  into  the  mental  life:  it  makes  a  place  for 
everything  and  puts  everything  in  its  place. 
"But  how  do  we  classify  experience?"  demands 
a  reader.  "Take  the  events  of  an  average  day 
and  tell  me  what  I  ought  to  do."  Let  us  try  to 
show  you  how  it  is  done. 

In  the  first  place,  don't  make  a  tremendous 
business  of  it.  It  is  really  quite  a  simple  affair 
and  not  one  to  worry  about.  If  the  mind  could 
not  do  its  own  classifying  to  some  extent,  ra- 
tional life  would  be  greatly  impeded.  But  the 
principles  of  mental  connection,  fortunately, 
work  unconsciously.  Life  would  not  be  worth 
living  if,  immediately  you  got  out  of  bed  in  the 
morning  you  had  to  begin  solemnly  to  classify 
the  toilet  soap,  then  the  towel,  then  the  break- 
fast, and  so  on  throughout  the  livelong  day. 
There  is  a  time  to  classify  these  things,  and  it  is 
done  unconsciously  by  repeated  use.  Begin  with 
the  morning  paper  j  not  consciously,  with  the 
teeth  set,  but  with  an  alert  mind,  and  when  you 
have  found  an  interesting  item  about  the  com- 
ing elections,  or  a  paragraph  on  the  chemistry 
of  soils,  or  discovered  one  about  a  clue  to  a 



missing  Raphael,  connect  it  with  any  previous 
item  you  have  met  with  on  the  same  subject,  de- 
liberately exploring  your  consciousness  for  pos- 
sible associations  by  way  of  similarity  or  contrast. 
You  may  have  no  other  chance  during  the  day 
of  exercising  your  mind  in  this  way;  but  if  you 
form  the  habit  you  will  classify  ideas  and  infor- 
mation unconsciously  and  without  effort. 


At  first,  success  may  not  be  marked,  but  you 
will  have  received  a  vivid  impression  of  the  item 
that  interested  you,  and  when,  some  mornings 
later,  you  read  a  paragraph  about  some  candi- 
date, the  building  of  a  new  Agricultural  Col- 
lege, or  the  latest  purchase  of  a  Raphael,  your 
recall  of  the  previous  impressions  will  be  in- 
stantaneous, and  you  will  thus  have  classified 
and  unified  your  knowledge. 

Judgment — As — your  knowledge  increases 
there  will  come  to  you  the  power  of  judgment; 
that  ls^opinions  of  more  or  less  weight  wilTbe 
formed.  You  cannot  classify  two  items  of 
knowledge  about  mineral  oil  without  compar- 
ing or  contrasting  them;  and  out  of  this  process 
you  evolve  a  conclusion,  tentative,  it  may  be, 
but  a  conclusion  at  any  rate.  If  an  item  in  the 
papers  about  Baku  oil  contains  the  information 
that  a  vast  new  territory  was  to  be  opened 
up,  and  an  item  about  Roumania  hints  that  the 
wells  have  practically  been  exhausted,  you  could 



not  very  well  link  the  two  items  together  without 
drawing  an  inference  as  to  the  probable  rise  in 
Baku  shares,  and,  perhaps,  in  the  price  of  lamp 
oil.  The  listless  absorber  of  newspaper  print 
might  fail,  through  force  of  habit,  to  register  a 
connection,  but  not  you. 

Importance  of  Standards — The  value  of  your 
judgments  or  opinions  is  determined  by  the  ex- 
tent of  your  acquaintance  with  the  best  stand- 
ards. A  popular  illustration  may  be  found  in 
the  awarding  of  prizes  at  a  dog  show.  If  you 
were  suddenly  called  upon  to  act  as  a  judge, 
owing  to  the  absence  of  an  expert  of  canines, 
what  would  be  expected  of  you?i  First,  your 
classification  would  have  to  be  accurate.  If  an 
owner  brought  up  a  basset  hound  and  you  classed 
it  as  a  dachshund,  you  would,  to  say  the  least, 
be  discredited  in  the  eyes  of  your  fellow  judges. 
To  them  it  would  be  almost  as  criminal  as  if  you 
had  mistaken  a  bloodhound  for  a  pomeranian. 
Next,  he  must  have  an  intimate  acquaintance 
with  the  best  representatives  of  each  class;  he 
must  have  good  standards.  A  knowledge  of 
these  standards  comes  to  him  from  classified  ex- 
perience and  from  the  close  study  of  types.  The 
dictionary  defines  the  word  standard  as  "a  meas- 
ure of  quantity,  quality,  or  value  established  by 
law  or  general  consent."  We  should  prefer  to 
say  that  it  is  established  by  the  scientific  method, 
of  which  more  anon. 




It  should  be  clearly  understood  that  these 
mental  processes  which  we  have  tried  to  explain 
by  using  familiar  topics  are  precisely  the  same 
as  those  used  in  all  the  higher  branches  of 
knowledge.  A  classification  of  dogs  is  just  as 
legitimate  as  a  classification  of  stars,  of  rocks,  of 
the  fine  arts,  or  of  human  emotions;  without 
such  classifications  the  acquisition  of  knowledge 
would  be  a  matter  of  supreme  difficulty. 

If,  for  instance,  you  had  to  arrange  all  flower- 
ing plants  into  classes,  the  better  to  know  them, 
an  amateur  would  need  half  a  lifetime  to  deal 
with  only  one  genus;  whereas  you  find  that  bot- 
anists have  done  this  work  already,  thus  simpli- 
fying your  labors,  and  enabling  you  to  identify 
at  once  flowers  which  you  have  not  seen  before. 
Moreover,  you  can  rem^g^er4^t^lsmcu:jeL^ily 
whenk^wfcdgfl  concerning  them  is  organized; 
and  new  conceptions  ansem  thg  mifld~ffith 
greater  readiness.  Fortunately,  the  important 
spheres  of  life  and  thought  have  already  re- 
ceived a  provisional  classification,  and  it  remains 
for  us  to  make  use  of  this  fact  for  the  advance- 
ment of  our  own  intellectual  interests,  by  mas- 
tering such  classifications  as  we  need  and  by 
studying  individual  cases.  This  brings  us  to 




Definition,  broadly  considered,  has  to  do  with 
what  a  thing  is.  Even  when  we  have  a  classifi- 
cation before  us,  it  is  not  always  easy  to  arrive  at 
a  definition,  on  account  of  obscurities  which  are 
continually  arising.  Here  is  a  case  in  point. 
Some  years  ago  a  woman  in  New  York  applied 
to  the  courts  for  an  annulment  of  marriage,  de- 
claring that  when  she  was  married,  her  husband 
had  kept  from  her  the  fact  that  he  was  not  white. 
To  some  people  this  sounds  like  an  absurdity. 
They  cannot  believe  that  a  woman  could  pos- 
sibly have  failed  to  recognize  a  colored  man. 
"Impossible"  is  their  verdict.  There  are  white 
men,  brown  men,  black  men,  yellow  men,  and 
"variegated":  this  makes  up  the  classification. 

No  doubt,  but  cases  arise  in  which  it  is  not 
easy  to  say  to  which  of  many  classes  an  indi- 
vidual distinctly  is  assigned.  The  woman  re- 
ferred to  called  in  experts,  who,  after  examining 
her  husband,  found  certain  conformations  and 
colors  of  the  finger  nails,  among  other  peculiar- 
ities which,  despite  the  apparent  whiteness  of  the 
skin,  proclaimed  the  man  an  immediate  descend- 
ant of  negro  or  semi-negro  ancestors.  The  wife 
won  her  case.  Hence  the  saying  that  classifica- 
tion deals  with  groups,  and  definition  with  indi- 
viduals. They  represent  two  sides  of  one 
thought  process.  Moreover,  a  group  may  some- 
times figure  as  an  individual  in  reference  to  a 



larger  group,  both  in  the  ordinary  affairs  of  life 
and  also  in  natural  science.  Indeed,  the  sub- 
stance of  what  scientific  research  has  revealed  of 
the  multiplicity  of  forms  of  animal  and  vege- 
table life  may  be  represented  by  a  geneological 


Two  marks  of  a  trained  mind  are  (a)  its  abil- 
ityJ;o  classify  experience  and  to  deal  with  indi- 
vidual instances,  and  (b)  its  knowledge  of  the 
best  standards.  The  reader  is,  thereiore,^3rged 
to  introduce  more  order  into  his  thought-life. 
The  process  itself  is  often  greatly  illuminating; 
the  sudden  confrontation  of  one  experience  with 
a  like  experience,  happening  in  different  circum- 
stances, may  result  in  a  flash  of  insight  carrying 
the  mind  altogether  beyond  the  limits  of  the 
classification  itself. 

It  must  not  be  forgotten  that  all  our  ordered 
schemes  of  knowledge  are  tentative  arrange- 
ments; they  stand  for  the  best  we  know,  but  they 
are  not  final.  Thus,  in  the  early  nineteenth  cen- 
tury literary  criticism  had  its  own  rules  for 
evaluating  prose  and  poetry,  and  when  a  fa- 
mous reviewer  applied  them  to  Wordsworth's 
poems  the  verdict  was  uttered  in  the  now  famous 
words,  "This  will  never  do."  Eventually,  it 
was  the  rules  of  literary  criticism  which  would 
not  do,  and  they  were  scrapped.  The  classifica- 
tion was  wrong,  hence  the  standard  of  values 
could  not  possibly  be  true  ones. 



It  was  a  wiser  world  that  welcomed  Kipling, 
whose  works  did  not  fit  the  prevalent  classifica- 
tion. Speaking  of  him,  in  conjunction  with  Loti, 
Mr.  Edmund  Gosse  says:  "The  old  rhetorical 
manner  of  criticism  was  not  meant  for  the  dis- 
cussion of  such  writers  as  these."1 

So  while  you  classify  your  experience,  always 
remember  that  experience  transcends  classifica- 
tion. You  cannot  put  life  into  a  scheme}  the 
unknown  "x"  confronts  us  everywhere.  Be  pre- 
pared tomodif y  your  classification  as  you  gain 

Look  forlTie^  are  con- 

stantly changing.  New  social  standards,  money 
standards,  standards  of  education  and  morality 
are  ever  slowly  evolving}  consequently  we  are 
not  surprised  when  we  see  differences  asserting 
themselves.  The  real  question  for  us,  however, 
is:  "What  is  the  standard  now?"We  do  not  mean 
in  any  one  thing,  but  in  everything  with  which 
we  are  concerned.  The  one  safe  rule  is  to  know 
that  standard  which  stands  for  excellence. 

For  instance,  a  student  wishes  to  begin  the 
study  of  Profit  Sharing,  considered  as  a  payment 
from  the  capitalist  to  the  workman.  Some 
writers  think  this  is  economically  sound}  others 
deny  it.  Few  students  begin  their  inquiries  in 
any  other  way  but  by  purchasing  an  elementary, 
and  perhaps  one-sided  discussion  of  the  subject. 
He  would  be  much  better  advised  if  he  went  di- 

1  Question  at  Issue,  p.  258. 



rect  to  a  standard  authority  j  or,  to  the  best 
writer  on  one  side,  then  to  the  best  on  the  other 
side.  In  that  way  one  can  easily  classify  the 
writers  of  lesser  calibre  and  appraise  their  ar- 


We  now  turn  to  an  analysis  of  the  principles 
of  connection  which  enabled  you  to  remember 
the  Town-Island  series,  appearing  on  page  14. 
Perhaps,  as  you  first  studied  this  list  of  words, 
you  were  not  conscious  of  the  laws  of  association 
which  made  possible  their  retention  and  recall. 
A  study  of  these  laws  will  give  you  the  idea  of 
classifying  and  the  idea>  actuated  by  interest  will 
give  rise  to  the  habit  of  classifying. 


The  stimulus  infant  may  elicit  the  response 
baby.   This  illustrates  association  by  similarity. 

The  word  bad  may  call  to  mind  the  word 
good.  This  illustrates  association  by  contrast. 
The  word  door  may  cause  you  to  think  knob. 
The  word  lightning  may  cause  you  to  think 
thunder.  The  last  two  examples  illustrate  asso- 
ciation by  contiguity  (the  state  of  being  in  close 
union  or  contact).  Door  and  knob  are  contigu- 
ous in  space.  Lightning  and  thunder  are  con- 
tiguous  in  time. 

The  Personal  Element — In  going  through 



any  list  of  connected  words  you  will  sometimes 
find  that  a  personal  association  is  stronger  than 
any  other.  When  this  is  the  case  you  should  use 
the  personal  association.  You  may  also  find  that 
two  words  are  capable  of  being  grouped  under 
two  or  more  of  the  principles  of  connection. 
This  fact  arises  from  the  complexity  of  experi- 
ence, which  offers  us  opportunities  of  taking  dif- 
ferent points  of  view.  Cane  and  fain  are  obvi- 
ously connected  by  similarity  of  sound}  but  there 
might  also  be  a  connection  in  the  mind  of  a  rheu- 
matic person  who  used  a  cane  to  relieve  the  pain 
of  walking.  Who  is  to  say  which  of  these  con- 
nections takes  precedence?  For  our  purposes 
the  main  thing  is  to  perceive  possible  connections 
and  to  use  them  to-  improve  memory  and 

Under  certain  conditions  night  may  suggest 
sadness  or  solitude;  under  entirely  different  con- 
ditions night  may  suggest  love  or  haffiness. 
Neither  similarity  nor  contrast  nor  contiguity 
resides  as  a  quality  in  objects  or  words  as  they 
exist}  rather  they  reside  in  objects  or  words  as 
these  objects  or  wordsjggjst  for  thoferson  who 
fer^02^ij^hem.  Briefly,  tKi  attitude  orfTftfose 
of  the  perion  who  makes  the  association  is  the 
essential  criterion. 


Because  of  the  findings  just  described,  most 



psychologists  place  mental  connections  under 
three  main  headings: 

1.    A  fsnrAfitinn  bv  similarity. 

(b)  in  time. 

We  shall  discuss  these  principles  in  detail  but 
not  for  the  purpose  of  requesting  you  to  learn 
the  numerous  sub-divisions.  The  outline,  we 
hope,  will  make  clear  the  important  principles 
underlying  the  three  laws:  similarity,  contrast, 
and  contiguity. 

( 1 )  Association  by  similarity.  The' first  prin- 
ciple is  so  named  because  the  connection  is  due 
to  the  tendency  of  the  mind  to  note  similarities. 
The  sub-divisions  of  the  principle  of  similarity 

(a)  Synonymy.  In  this  case  the  two  words 
represent  the  same  idea  and  have  almost 
the  same  meaning;  one  word  can  be  used 
in  place  of  the  other  without  any  great 
alteration  in  the  sense.  For  example, 
ghost  and  apparition  .  jire^sylionymous. 
So  are  poor  and  indigent;'  frequently , 
often;  worky  labor;  emptyy  vacant; 
tired,  weary;  question ,  query;  obtain, 

(b)  in  sound. 
2.  Association  by  contrast. 

3.  Association  by  contiguity. 
(a)  in  space y 



(b)  General  and  Particular.  The  word 
"General"  in  this  sense  means  class,  or 
kind  of  'thing,  but  it  is  always  a  class  or 
kind  which  includes  several  distinguish- 
ing subdivisions  known  as  "Particular." 
For  example:  Animal  would  be  Gen- 
eral, and  dogy  caty  or  elephant  would  be 
Particular.  Flower  and  daisy  is  another 
example,  flower  being  the  General,  and 
daisy  being  the  Particular.  Dog  and 
terrier  are  General  and  Particular}  so 
are  cityy  New  York;  treey  oak;  fishy  cod; 
authory  Shakespeare;  schooly  high- 
school;  movey  run;  color y  green. 

(c)  Common  Denominator.  This  classifica- 
tion is  applicable  where  the  two  ideas  are 
of  the  same  sort  or  kind  and  can  both  be 
included  under  a  wider  or  more  general 
kind  known  as  "General,"  the  two  ideas 
existing  subordinately,  or  side  by  side, 
within  the  same  general  class.  Compare 
the  following  examples  of  the  Common 
Denominator  with  the  examples  already 
given  of  General  and  Particular.  Oak 
and  elm  are  Common  Denominator,  for 
they  are  both  trees.  Red  and  blue  are 
Common  Denominator,  for  they  are 
both  colors.  Other  examples  are  Londony 
Paris  (both  capitals) ;  dogy  cat  (both  do- 
mestic animals) ;  walk,  run  (both  being 
sorts  of  movement) j  Sunday y  Monday 



(both  days  of  the  week)  j  terrier >  foodie 
(both  dogs)  j  New  Yorky  Halifax  (both 
ports) }  cod,  herring;  Shakes  f  ear  ey  Mil- 
ton; many  woman;  colonely  captain; 
crayony  fen;  coaty  hat;  booty  stocking. 

(d)  Whole  and  Part.  This  sub-division  is 
very  easy  to  understand,  for  it  includes 
all  those  cases  in  which  one  of  the  ideas 
is  a  part  of  the  other.  Horse  and  head 
would  be  an  instance  of  Whole  and  Part, 
horse  being  the  Whole  and  head  the  Part. 
Other  examples  are:  many  arm;  liony 
mane;  forest,  tree;  yeary  month;  book, 
leaves;  loafy  crust;  Canaday  Ontario;  at- 
mosfherey  oxygen. 

(e)  Object  and  Attribute.  Here  one  of  the 
two  words  will  be  found  to  denote  a  per- 
son or  thing,  while  the  other  expresses 
some  characteristic  quality,  or  attribute, 
or  action  peculiar  to  that  thing.  We  di- 
vide this  section  into  three:  (a)  Object 
and  Attribute}  (b)  Object  and  Function} 
(c)  Object  and  Accessory.  For  example, 
under  the  first  (a)  we  include  snow  and 
white;  ice  and  cold;  lead  and  heavy; 
desert  and  dry;  night  and  dark.  Under 
the  second,  (b)  we  include  fish  and 
swim;  bird  and  sing;  man  and  walk; 
scales  and  weigh.  Under  the  third,  (c) 
we  include  mother  and  good;  heat  and 
offressive;  laziness  and  failure.  Notice 



here  that  although  tabley  woody  is  an 
example  of  Whole  and  Part,  yet  tabley 
woo  den  y  is  an  example  of  Object  and  At- 
tribute, for  wooden  is  an  adjective. 
Tabley  wooden  tabley  would  be  an  ex- 
ample of  General  and  Particular,  table 
here  being  General,  while  wooden  table 
would  describe  for  us  the  particular  kind 
or  species  of  table. 

(f )  Cause  and  Effect.  The  application  of  this 
classification  is  simple.  It  is  used  when 
one  of  two  ideas  follows  as  the  effect  or 
result  of  the  other.  An  illustration  is 
seen  in  labor  and  weariness,  in  which 
labor  is  the  cause  and  weariness  the  effect. 
Another  example  would  be  printing- 
fresSy  booky  the  printing-press  being  the 
cause  and  the  book  the  result.  The  fol- 
lowing are  additional  examples:  Illness, 
fretful;  wealthy  comfort;  cloudy  rain; 
cigar y  smoke;  clouds y  gloom. 

(g)  Complement.  This  Principle  of  Inherent 
Connection  seldom  is  used.  It  occurs  in 
cases  in  which  one  idea  demands  the  ex- 
istence of  a  second  and  correlative  idea  in 
order  to  complete  the  thought  suggested, 
as  parent y  child;  teacher,  pupil;  shep- 
herdy  flock;  lecturer y  audience. 

(h)  Sound  Similarity.  This  subdivision  dif- 
fers from  the  others  in  that  the  connec- 
tion occurs  between  two  words  whenever 



one  word,  or  a  part  of  one  word,  sounds 
very  much  like  the  other  word,  or  like  a 
part  of  the  other  word.  For  instance,  the 
sounds  knight  and  night  are  perfectly 
similar.  Bird  and  Burden  is  another 
good  example  of  this  law.  Notice  that  in 
Similarity  of  Sound  the  similarity  should 
occur  either  in  the  whole  word,  or  else 
in  the  accented  syllables.  The  following 
are  examples:  Pick-axe y  axiom;  bright y 
bride;  sony  sun;  brother y  another;  ocean y 
notion;  tenty  attentive;  flock y  flog;  stock y 
stocking;  feety  feed;  great y  grade;  tiey 
tile;  afey  April;  fooly  tool. 

The  second  of  the  Three  Principles  of  Mental 
Connection  is  the  Principle  of  Contrast.  In  this 
case  the  connection  is  not  one  of  mere  difference. 
It  is  not  sufficient  that  the  two  ideas  be  unlike  one 
another.  In  order  to  be  classed  under  Opposi- 
tion or  Contrast  they  must  be  absolutely  con- 
trary to  one  another.  For  example,  wood  and 
iron  must  not  be  classified  under  opposition,  since 
though  they  are  unlike  one  another,  they  are  not 
the  exact  opposite  of  one  another.  Hard  and  soft 
are  examples  of  contrariety  because  they  repre- 
sent extreme  opposites.  North  and  South  would 
be  a  case  of  Opposition,  and  so  would  East  and 
Westy  but  North  and  West  would  not  be  opposi- 
tion, nor  would  South  and  West.  The  following 
are  examples  of  Opposition:  light y  dark;  dayy 



night;  strong,  weak;  well,  ill;  war,  peace;  shorty 
long;  friend y  enemy;  thick,  thin;  idle,  industri- 
ous; giant y  dwarf. 

The  Third  Principle  of  Mental  Connection  is 
the  Principle  of  Contiguity.  In  this  case  the  con- 
nection does  not  arise  out  of  any  similarity  be- 
tween the  two  ideas  themselves,  but  is  due  to  the 
fact  that  the  two  ideas  happen  to  have  been  pre- 
sented to  the  mind  under  circumstances  likely  to 
bind  them  together,  so  that  the  thought  of  one 
recalls  the  thought  of  the  other.  Wellington 
and  Waterloo  are  examples  of  Contiguity,  for, 
although  there  is  no  similarity  between  the  two, 
one  can  scarcely  think  of  Wellington  without 
thinking  also  of  the  Battle  of  Waterloo.  Again, 
roomy  and  chair  would  be  an  example  of  Con- 
tiguity y  the  two  objects  are  in  no  way  related 
save  that  they  usually  exist  together  in  time  and 
space.  One  never  thinks  of  chair  without  bring- 
ing to  mind  the  thought  of  room.  Other  ex- 
amples are:  water y  can;  watch y  pocket;  city,  traf- 
fic; holiday y  country;  lightning,  thunder. 

Connections  by  Contiguity  are  often  purely 
personal  in  their  character,  and  depend  upon  the 
special  knowledge  or  experience  of  the  indivi- 
dual. To  a  man  who  kept  a  tame  monkey  in  his 
garden  the  example  "gardeny  monkeyyy  might 
be  a  strong  instance  of  Contiguity,  though  to  the 
majority  of  persons  the  connection  would  be  un- 

The  three  Principles  of  Mental  Connection — 



similarity,  contrast,  contiguity , — are  of  greatest 
importance  and  should  be  mastered  thoroughly. 
The  subdivisions  are  given  to  enable  you  to  learn 
through  many  illustrations  the  three  main  prin- 


Let  us  now  proceed  to  examine  the  application 
of  these  Three  Principles  of  Mental  Connection 
to  the  list  of  fifteen  words  as  re-arranged  on 
page  1 4.  (  See  below) .  It  was  by  means  of  a  sub- 
conscious recognition  of  these  Laws  that  you 
were  enabled  to  remember  the  list  so  readily. 
The  conscious  and  deliberate  analysis  of  the  con- 
nections would  have  made  the  task  still  more 
easy  and  the  recall  more  nearly  permanent.  In 
the  following  example  you  should  reason  out 
carefully  for  yourself  each  connection: 


r  H 

Whole  and  Part  S  Wi 

Attribute  and  Object  ^ 

Contiguity  |  p 

General  and  Particular  ]  Man 
t  Animal 

Whole  and  Part  { 
Object  and  Accessory  { 
Common  Denominator  | 

Now,  without  reading  this  series  of  words 
again,  endeavor  to  write  this  list  backward,  be- 



Whole  and  Part 
Whole  and  Part 
Whole  and  Part 
General  and  Particular 
General  and  Particular 
Object  and  Attribute 
General  and  Particular 




ginning  with  the  word  "island"  and  working 
back  to  the  word  "town."  This  also  you  will 
probably  achieve  without  hesitation. 

The  Repetition  of  a  "Series" — When  repeat- 
ing any  similar  series  of  connected  words,  say  the 
words  of  the  series  alone,  and  do  not  repeat  or 
trouble  to  think  about  the  classification.  The 
classification  enables  you  to  learn  the  series  in 
the  first  instance,  so  that  afterward  you  can  re- 
peat the  series  itself  without  recalling  the  classi- 
fication. At  first  never  attempt  to  learn  a  series 
of  connected  words  merely  by  several  repetitions 
of  the  words,  but  always  by  classifying  in  accord- 
ance with  the  connecting  laws.  In  time  you  will 
be  able  to  remember  a  list  of  words  without  con- 
sciously making  the  analysis.  Perhaps  you  can  do 
this  now. 

The  Translation  of  "Series" — If  you  know  a 
foreign  language,  you  will  find  that  you  can 
translate  the  "Town"  Series  into  that  language 
and  repeat  it  forward  and  backward  as  easily  as 
in  your  native  tongue.  Such  an  exercise  is  of 
great  value  to  all  who  are  studying  foreign  lan- 
guages. A  series  which  contains  examples  of  sim- 
ilarity of  sound  should  not  be  translated  unless 
an  equally  striking  similarity  of  sound  exists  be- 
tween the  two  words  after  translation.  If  you 
study  the  following  series  of  one  hundred  words 
carefully,  taking  about  a  dozen  words  at  a  time 
and  analyzing  the  connections  as  you  did  in  the 
"Town"  series,  you  will  find  that  you  can  im- 



mediately  repeat  the  whole  series  from  memory, 
forward  or  backward.  Like  the  words  "Town" 
to  "Island,"  the  Series  from  "Island"  to  "Deep" 
may  be  translated  into  any  language. 

Continuation  of  the  "Town"  Series: 












Battleship  Garment  Quarry 







Breakfast  Shell 

oicc V  t 

Monument  Crown 

Morning  Explosion 






















je  Pinafore 

Motor  Car 






Diamond  Bitter 


















Sun  Dial 


























Mind-Wandering — It  is  obvious  that  there  is 
practically  no  limit  to  the  number  of  words  that 
might  be  committed  to  memory  in  this  way,  be- 
cause the  mind  is  never  troubled  with  more  than 
two  ideas  at  a  time.  If  the  student  cares  to  con- 

1  Before  translating,  place  "thread"  between  cotton  and  needle. 



struct  a  series  of  his  own,  he  will  find  that,  if  the 
ideas  come  within  the  laws  of  connection  when 
taken  two  at  a  time,  and  if  he  carefully  compares 
each  pair  before  proceeding  to  the  next  pair,  he 
can  remember  a  series  of  a  thousand  words  as 
easily  as  he  remembers  a  series  of  twenty. 

When  constructing  a  series  you  should  take 
care  that  each  word  you  add  has  a  more  intimate 
connection  with  the  word  immediately  preceding 
it  than  with  any  word  a  few  steps  earlier  in  the 
series.  Thus,  in  the  "Island"  series,  it  would  be 
unwise  to  write  "Island,  water,  drink,  liquid" 
for  although  there  is  a  connection  between 
"liquid"  and  "drink"  there  is  a  still  closer  and 
more  obvious  connection  between  "liquid"  and 
"water."  If  you  were  to  write  "water,  drink, 
liquid,"  it  would  suggest  that  when  you  wrote 
the  word  "liquid"  you  had  failed  to  drive  out 
from  your  mind  the  idea  of  "water."  Your  atten- 
tion was  centered  more  strongly  on  "water" 
than  on  "drink." 


Suppose  that  you  have  to  learn  the  thirty-six 
exceptions  to  the  rule  that  in  Latin  all  nouns  of 
the  third  declension  ending  in  is  are  feminine. 
Many  a  schoolboy  has  labored  hard  and  long 
over  these  thirty-six  words,  only  to  forget  them 
again,  and  never  to  be  sure  that  he  knew  all  of 



Let  us  arrange  these  thirty-six  exceptions  in 
pairs  so  that  we  shall  have  to  pay  attention  to 
only  two  of  them  at  a  time.  The  connection  may 
not  be  so  obvious  as  in  the  first  series,  but  a  little 





























































Fine  Flour 
















Now,  a  peculiarity  about  a  list  of  words  learnt 
in  this  manner  is  that  it  is  not  necessary  to  repeat 
the  whole  list  to  discover  whether  any  particular 
word  is  in  it  or  not,  because,  if  the  word  is  in  the 
series,  it  will  immediately  recall  the  word  with 
which  it  was  associated.  If  it  is  not,  it  will  recall 
nothing.  You  do  not  need  to  repeat  the  "Town" 



series  of  words  to  tell  us  that  "cat"  was  in  it,  and 
that  "annex"  was  notj  nor  the  second  series  to 
tell  us  whether  or  not  ensis,  piscis,  finis  or  cassis 
are  exceptions.  Whether  you  learn  the  series  in 
English  or  Latin  makes  no  difference,  provided 
you  know  the  exact  meaning  of  the  Latin  words. 

Clues  to  Over  Three  Thousand  French  Words 
— More  than  three  thousand  words  with  the  fol- 
lowing twenty-two  endings  are  spelled  the  same 
in  French  as  in  English. 















































La  brochure  is  French  for  an  ordinary  pam- 
phlet: le  pamphlet  for  a  hostile  pamphlet  only. 

It  will  be  observed  that  these  twenty-two  spe- 
cimen words,  forming  the  "Abominable"  series, 
selected  from  the  larger  list  of  three  thousand 
odd,  are  joined  together  by  the  Principles  of 
Mental  Connection. 

How  this  principle  of  mmparjffpr  ^nH  classify- 
ing ideals  may  be  appheo^^fy  and  at^t™0^ 
to  the  infinitely  various  problems  of  memory 
wilinSe*  shown  as  the  lessons  proceed.  Some  ap- 
plications will  be  immediately  obvious,  such  as  in 
speaking  without  notes.  What  are  notes  for  but 
to  remind  vou  of  that  whicK^me^ 
minister,  the  lawyer,  or  the  lectui^1  does  not 
jump  from  the  idea  with  which  he  starts  to  some- 
thing totally  foreign  to  his  subject.  tjis-i«*e  of 
thought  and  argument,  with _ggProPr^a^p  illus- 
tratfon,  is  planned  out  beforehand  and  divided 
into^  heading's:  if  these  divisions  fotlSw^ne 
another  logically,  he  has  only  to  write  them 
down  and  compare  them  two  at  a  time,  classify- 
ing the  connection,  to  remember  each  of  them  in 
its  exact  order,  regardless  of  their  number.  If 
you  are  a  public  speaker,  try  it.  If  you  do  not 
know  what  comes  next  in  your  discourse,  the 
arrangement  of  your  topics  is  probably  inept. 


In  discussing  impression  and  registration  of 
material,  of  necessity  we  have  to  touch  upon  re- 



call — the  third  stage  in  memory.  The  greater 
the  number  of  logical  associations  formed  when 
material  is  first  learned,  the  greater  the  number 
of  contacts  and  clues  we  possess  to  recall  or  re- 
collect that  material.  When  attempting  to  recall 
something,  seek  these  contacts  and  clues  with  per- 
sistence and  confidence.  If  you  desire  the  name 
of  an  author,  think  of  the  title  of  a  book  he  has 
written}  recall  the  main  ideas  in  the  bookj  where 
and  when  you  read  the  book,  etc.  If  you  find 
yourself  still  unable  to  give  the  author's  name, 
slowly  recite  the  alphabet — ay  by  c,  dy  ey  j — 
Faraday  comes  to  you  immediately. 


The  subconscious  action  of  Association  may 
sometimes  be  employed  effectually  in  the  effort 
to  recall  an  isolated  fact,  the  remembrance  of 
which  cannot  be  awakened  easily  by  any  other 
means.  The  method  is  to  return  to  the  surround- 
ings in  which  you  last  were  aware  of  the  fact  you 
wish  to  remember.  Forj^mp^ 
mislaid  a  bunch  of  keys,  you  may  remember 
where  you  placed  them  if  you  go  back  to  the 
place  where  you  know  you  last  used  them.  If 
you  have  "forgotten"  the  funny  story  told  you 
by  a  friend,  it  may  recur  to  you  if  you  think  of 
what  preceded  it.  The  reproduction  of  some  of 
the  component  elements  in  a  situation  tends  to 
revive  in  the  mind  the  impressions  made  by 



other  component  elements  which  may  not  be  ac- 
tually reproduced  without  such  stimulus.  It  is, 
of  course,  impossible  to  classify  these  purely  ar- 
bitrary associations,  depending  as  they  do  chiefly 
upon  propinquity  of  time  and  place. 


In  this  connection,  it  is  interesting  to  record 
what  Mrs.  Kendall,  the  celebrated  actress,  has  to 
say  about  the  way  in  which  actors  and  actresses 
remember  their  speeches.  She  says: 

"The  memory  can  be  cultivated,  like  any 
other  faculty,  up  to  a  certain  pitch.  Practice 
works  wonders.  If  you  have  not  played  a  part 
for  years,  the  re-reading  of  it  three  or  four  times 
only  will  bring  it  back  to  you.  There  is  much  op- 
portunity on  the  stage  to  help  our  memory.  We 
have  what  is  called  the  'business'  of  the  scene. 
The  fact  that  you  have  to  do  certain  things 
brings  a  certain  line  back  to  your  memory.  Often 
when  you  enter  your  house,  and  sit  at  the  same 
place  and  at  the  same  table,  the  memory  of  the 
past  returns,  'C'est  la  meme  chose  sur  la  scene.' 
A  little  bit  of  'business'  brings  back  a  speech}  the 
remembrance  of  a  speech  brings  back  a  bit  of 
'business:'  the  one  helps  the  other.  Still,  though 
an  exceptional  memory  is  not  absolutely  neces- 
sary, it  is  an  enormous  help. 

"The  most  extraordinary  instance  of  memory 
that  I  personally  remember  was  that  of  old  Mr. 
Buckstone,  who  used  to  come  upon  the  stage  at 



rehearsals,  reading  his  part  and  not  knowing  a 
word  j  but  he  would  come  on  at  night,  and  the 
clothes,  and  the  situation,  and  the  whole  thing, 
brought  the  words  back  to  him,  I  am  speaking 
of  the  repetition  of  an  old  part.  The  fact  of  put- 
ting on  the  clothes,  and  dressing  for  the  part, 
and  speaking  about  it  for  a  little,  brought  it 


Various  systems  of  Mnemonics  are  founded 
upon  arbitrary  associations  of  locality.  In  some 
of  these,  the  pupil  is  directed  to  rule  a  square 
sheet  of  paper  into  nine  or  sixteen  squares,  and 
to  imagine  that  he  sees  in  each  square  a  word  or 
picture  indicative  of  the  fact  to  be  remembered. 
It  would  be  appalling  to  contemplate  the  chaotic 
state  of  a  mind  subjected  to  such  a  tax  through 
several  weeks  of  diligent  study.  A  somewhat 
similar  system  instructs  the  pupil  to  locate  and 
picture  in  imagination  all  the  facts  he  wants  to 
remember,  as  being  present  in  some  room  fam- 
iliar to  him.  There  would  be  obvious  impedi- 
ments in  the  way  of  applying  this  method  to  the 
memorization  of  a  list  of  the  Presidents  of  the 
United  States,  or  the  mountains  of  Europe,  or 
the  Emperors  of  Rome. 


But  although  the  systems  just  mentioned  are 
not  in  accord  with  the  laws  of  psychology,  it 



must  not  be  assumed  that  every  artificial  aid  to 
memory  is  to  be  condemned  as  worthless.  Thou- 
sands of  students  of  physics  have  remembered 
the  order  of  the  colors  in  the  spectrum  by  the  ar- 
tificial word  "Vibgyor,"  in  which  V  stands  for 
violet,  I  for  indigo,  B  for  blue,  G  for  green,  Y 
for  yellow,  O  for  orange,  and  R  for  red.  Again, 
the  letters  p,a,d,  forming  the  word  "pad"  give 
the  initials  of  the  membranes  of  the  brain  from 
within  outward:  p — piaj  a — arachnoid j  d — 

The  cutaneous  nerves  crossing  the  region  of 
the  Iliac  crest  may  be  remembered  by  the  word 
"slide,"  in  which  s — sacral  nerves  j  1 — lumbar 
nerves  j  i — ilio-gastricj  d — dorsal,  and  e — exter- 
nal cutaneous. 

Pike's  Peak  is  14,  147  feet  high.  This  number 
can  easily  be  remembered  because  it  consists  of 
two  14's  and  a  half  of  14.  Telephone  numbers 
can  often  be  remembered  by  the  application  of 
the  same  principle.  Take  the  telephone  number 
114.  If  one  were  born  on  the  4th  day  of  the 
11th  month,  114  can  easily  be  remembered. 
There  are  undoubtedly  hundreds  of  similar  ap- 
plications of  these  principles. 

A  school  pupil  studying  history  may  use  the 
following  device: 

L — Lexington,  battle  of,  1775. 

I — Independence,  Declaration  of,  1776. 

B — Burgoyne's  campaign,  1777. 

E — Evacuation  of  Philadelphia,  1778. 



R — Richard,  Bonhomme,  Paul  Jones,  1779. 

T— Treason  of  Arnold,  1780. 

Y — Yorktown's  capture,  1781. 
Thus  the  word  liberty  and  date  1775  serve  as  the 
bases  for  the  associations. 

Rhyme  as  an  Adventitious  Aid  to  Memory — 
Verse  is  usually  memorized  with  greater  rapidity 
than  prose,  and  this  is  largely  due  to  associations 
of  rhyme  and  rhythm.  For  this  reason  verse  may 
occasionally  prove  to  be  a  short  cut  to  the  recol- 
lection of  certain  facts.  Probably  most  of  us  owe 
our  recollection  of  the  number  of  days  in  each 
month  to  the  old  rhyme:  "Thirty  days  hath  Sep- 

It  cannot  be  too  strongly  insisted  upon  that 
such  expedients  as  those  illustrated  in  the  last 
paragraphs  should  be  considered  merely  as  aids 
and  not  in  any  way  as  a  substitute  for  a  true 
psychological  development  of  the  memory,  such 
as  that  embodied  in  the  Pelman  System. 


It  is  in  the  little  things  of  life  that  the  ability 
to  remember  without  a  note-book  is  the  most 
useful.  Two  men  at  the  club  look  very  much 
alike.  One  is  named  Weissmann  and  the  other 
Gardner.  Weissmann  wears  glasses,  and  you 
select  that  peculiarity  to  distinguish  the  two  men 
because  there  are  two  s's  in  "Weissmann"  and 
also  in  "eyeglass." 



Two  foreign  words  confuse  you,  and  you  can 
never  recollect  which  is  which.  Let  us  suppose 
that  they  are  the  German  words  "unten"  and 
"unter,"  one  of  which  is  an  adverb,  while  the 
other  is  a  preposition.  The  only  difference  be- 
tween the  words  themselves  is  in  the  final  letters, 
"n"  and  "r."  Compare  the  alphabetical  order  of 
these  final  letters  with  the  alphabetical  order  of 
the  initials  of  the  words  "adverb"  and  "preposi- 
tion," and  the  agreement  is  at  once  apparent.  In 
this  case  it  is  not  the  meaning  of  the  words  that 
you  wish  to  fix,  but  their  use. 

In  an  examination  in  geography,  a  little  girl 
could  never  remember  which  mountain  chain 
had  the  broader  plateau,  the  Rockies  or  the 
Andes.  When  it  was  pointed  out  to  her  that 
there  was  an  "n"  in  "Andes"  and  in  "narrow," 
and  none  in  "Rockies"  the  idea  became  fixed. 

The  "Oxford"  color  is  dark  blue  and  the 
"Cambridge"  is  light  blue.  There  is  an  "i"  and 
also  a  "g"  in  "Cambridge"  and  in  "light"  j  there 
is  neither  in  "Oxford"  and  in  "dark." 

To  remember  the  difference  between  the  com- 
plement and  the  supplement  of  an  angle  in  ge- 
ometry: the  "complement"  is  what  remains  after 
subtracting  from  "one"  right  angle;  the  "sup- 
plement" is  what  remains  after  subtracting  from 
<ctwo"  right  angles.  Observe  that  there  is  only 
one  "p"  in  "complement,"  and  that  there  are  two 
in  "supplement,"  which  agrees  with  the  number 
of  right  angles  in  each  term. 




Recognition,)  the  last  stage  in  memory,  implies 
that  we  react  toward  an  object  of  past  experience 
with  a  feeling  of  familiarity  which  could  not  oc- 
cur the  first  time  the  object  was  experienced. 
Recognition  does  not  depend  entirely  upon  recall 
because  the  baby  appears  to  recognize  before  he 
gives  evidence  of  recall.  Furthermore  we  are  all 
aware  of  the  fact  that  we  recognize  the  meaning 
of  words  which  we  would  be  unable  to  recall  for 
use  in  our  speaking  vocabulary. 

Recognition  probably  does  not  depend  upon 
recall  but  it  does  rest  upon  association,  the  same 
basis  upon  which  recall  is  built.  If  necessity  de- 
mands recall  instead  of  mere  recognition,  then 
one  should  deepen  and  enrich  the  associations 
so  that  recall  is  possible.  From  this  viewpoint 
recognition  is  the  step  in  memory  which  precedes 
the  more  developed  step — recall.  However,  the 
mere  ability  to  recognize  is  frequently  adequate 
for  the  need  at  hand.  The  person  alone  con- 
cerned can  make  the  decision  as  to  whether  or 
not  the  ability  to  recognize  is  the  only  trait  de- 




"Don't  allow  your  resolutions  to  crumble  j 
just  continue  in  the  spirit  with  which  you  be- 
an the  Course. 

2.  Don't  complain  that  you  are  a  "born  mind- 
wanderer."  You  may  be,  but  conquer  the 
habit  by  discipline.  Hundreds  have  suc- 
ceeded before  you. 

3.  Don't  skim  this  Lesson.  Go  over  it  until  you 
know  it. 

4.  Don't  fail  to  test  your  knowledge  by  self- 

5.  Don't  be  satisfied  with  a  ^//-knowledge  of 
anything.  Be  thorough. 

6.  Don't  forget  that  the  formal  exercises  we 
prescribe,  will,  if  practiced,  enable  you  to  do 
unconsciously  what  was,  at  first,  a  conscious 




1 .  In  all  mental  training,  effort  should  be  car- 
ried out  in  a  rational  manner.  Therefore, 
however  diligently  you  work  at  mental  con- 
nection see  to  it  that  your  mind  has  its  periods 

2.  Decide  what  classifications  you  need  in  (a) 
your  calling,  and  (b)  for  your  private  studies. 

3.  Begin  to  use  the  principles  of  mental  con- 
nection as  an  aid  in  the  evolving  of  new 

4.  Make  it  a  matter  of  conscience,  of  fridey  if 
you  will,  to  work  for  certain  prescribed  pe- 
riods of  time  without  allowing  your  mind 
to  wander. 

5.  Remember  that  mental  training  involves 
moral  training.  The  virtue  of  perseverance 
is  really  the  power  of  concentration  in  one  of 
its  many  forms  of  expression. 




There  are  no  doubt  several  subjects  of  the 
greatest  importance  to  you  personally,  either  be- 
cause you  are  deeply  interested  in  them  or  be- 
cause they  concern  your  calling.  Thus,  for  a 
paper  manufacturer,  any  new  item  connected 
with  glazing  or  water  marks  would  instantly  at- 
tract attention.  A  paragraph  about  a  cutting  ma- 
chine might  not  attract  the  same  notice}  and  one 
about  a  new  fibre  might  be  read  without  more 
than  a  passing  wonder.  Nevertheless,  both  of 
these  items  may,  ultimately,  be  of  real  import- 
ance to  the  paper-maker.  The  cutting  machine 
may  be  more  efficient  for  paper  than  the  knives 
he  is  using,  and  the  fibre  may  become  an  ingre- 
dient in  a  new  sort  of  paper. 

This  means  that  no  sort  of  "cutter,"  and  no 
kind  of  fibre,  can  be  matters  of  indifference  to 
the  paper-maker  j  but  the  only  way  in  which  he 
can  contribute  to  progressive  movements  is  to 
classify  all  cutting  machines  and  all  materials 
that  are  likely  to  come  into  line  with  his  purposes. 
If  he  fails  in  this  respect  it  will  be  because  the 
information  in  his  mind,  gathered  from  all 
sources,  is  unorganized}  its  possibilities  can  be 
appreciated  only  according  as  it  is  classified. 

Now,  put  yourself  in  the  place  of  the  paper 
manufacturer.  Instead  of  the  items  which  con- 
cern but  which  may  escape  him,  discover  those 



which  concern  you.  They  are  probably  there  in 
your  consciousness,  awaiting  proper  organiza- 
tion. As  yet,  the  work  of  classifying  and  evalu- 
ating is  incomplete.  You  are,  therefore,  losing 
a  certain  number  of  ideas  which  might  be  of 
great  service.  The  man  who  is  mentally  alive 
does  not  lose  them  5  he  becomes  the  leader 
among  his  fellows, 

"But,"  you  ask,  "how  am  I  to  begin?  Your 
advice  sounds  good,  and  yet  I  don't  know  how  to 
make  a  start."  We  shall  tell  you  by  suggesting 
a  series  of  questions. 

(a)  What  is  the  object  of  your  calling? 

(b)  How  does  it  differ  from  closely  allied  call- 

(c)  When  did  new  and  advantageous  methods 
appear,  and  who  invented  them? 

(d)  In  what  other  occupations  are  processes 
used  similar  to  yours?  Can  you  learn  any- 
thing from  them? 

(e)  Have  you  unified  all  the  knowledge  you 
have  obtained  about  your  calling? 

To  answer  these  questions  properly  is  not  a 
simple  matter,  get  pen  and  paper  and  do  the 
thing  thoroughly.  It  is  an  excellent  exercise  in 
itself,  and  it  has  other  values  of  importance.  Let 
not  the  student  object  that  as  an  exercise  it  deals 
with  trade  and  commerce,  not  with  studies.  Sub- 
stitute the  word  studies  for  calling  and  the  ques- 



tions  are  equally  apposite.  The  exercise  is  not 
one  that  can  be  worked  in  an  hour  j  it  is  rather  a 
continuous  process  extending  over  a  period,  un- 
til memory  has  yielded  up  all  its  material,  and 
the  judgment  has  assessed  its  value.  It  applies 
to  the  employee  as  well  as  the  employer,  if  the 
employee  makes  the  employer's  affairs  his  own 


To  repeat  from  memory  a  series  of  connected 
words  which  you  have  drawn  up  for  yourself  is 
not  as  good  an  exercise  as  to  repeat  a  list  which 
has  been  drawn  up  by  someone  else.  The  reason 
is  obvious.  In  your  own  list  the  connections 
have  been  strengthened  by  the  effort  of  imagina- 
tion j  in  the  other  list,  it  is  necessary  to  perceive 
the  connectives  of  another  mind.  Use  the. 
"town"  series  and  its  continuation. 


At  some  time  or  other,  everybody  is  called 
upon  to  make  a  speech.  It  may  be  a  great  occa- 
sion with  an  audience  of  thousands,  or  a  small 
occasion  like  a  presentation  occupying  a  few 
minutes.  In  any  case  a  certain  order  of  ideas 
must  be  observed,  and  to  remember  this  order  is 
important.  Here  the  principles  of  connection 
are  a  real  help.  Suppose  you  have  to  take  part 
in  a  debate  on  "Is  a  lawyer  justified  in  defending 
a  prisoner  of  whose  guilt  he  is  cognizant?"  The 
affirmative  speaker  has  resumed  his  seat,  and  you 



now  stand  up  to  argue  the  following  points, 
which  you  wish  to  argue  from  memory. 

(a)  It  degrades  Justice  into  a  competition  of 
skill  between  two  lawyers  both  of  whom 
believe  in  the  prisoner's  guilt. 

(b)  It  defeats  Justice  by  clever  but  insincere 

(c)  The  lawyer  becomes  an  accomplice  of  the 
prisoner  when  he  deliberately  frustrates 
the  intention  of  -the  Law  he  ought  to 

(d)  The  lawyer  who  acts  a  lie  cannot  retain  his 

The  main  ideas  of  these  four  divisions  can  be 
"keyed"  together  in  the  following  way:  De- 
grades, defeats,  accomplice,  self-respect. 

Some  students  being  good  visualizers,  they  do 
not  find  it  necessary  to  do  more  than  to  study 
the  outline  closely  j  they  see  the  points  mentally 
when  speaking.  Others  can  "see"  nothing,  and 
need  a  word  series  to  fall  back  upon  in  case  of 
momentary  forgetfulness.  In  any  event  the  ex- 
ercise of  forming  such  a  series  is  good  from 
every  point  of  view:  concentration,  analysis, 
classification,  and  logical  sequence. 



Fill  in  the  blanks  of  the  following  story. 
Each  blank  stands  for  one  word.  In  some  cases 
the  first  and  last  letter  of  a  word  are  given. 

"The  sergeant  had  been  through  .'WouM*-^. 

battles,  in  the  last  encounter  half  of  his  jaw  had 
been  .  Vj^^y^*  •  awaY-  When  in  the  hos- 
pital, he  bore  his  sufferings  p  .  .  .  .  y, 

3  | 

until  the  .time  when  he  began  to  be  well  x^/  ^  .  A 
.  ^Jt<4»4tt~for  his  relations  to  .  .  .  . 

him.  Then  he  was  nervous.  He  was  especially 
nervous  about   .  .  .  v^s^w^  .  wife's  seeing  his 


fractured   .    and 

the  nurse  pitifully  to  give  him  w  A*?vWV^\  .  .  .g 


of  the  approaching  visit,  so  that  he  might  

.  .^A*^jL/\*f  himself  for  the  ordeal.    'Pm  a 

coward/  he  lamented.   When  his  wife  came,  he 
V^tefy^1^'  '  ^mself  ^or  ^e  ordeal.  She 

was  wonderfully  brave.   Just  for  a  moment  she 
shuddered,  then  .  >'^J^:\^^v^him." 






It  is  merely  the  instinct  of  self  preservation 
that  causes  one  to  put  aside  a  little  sum  of  money 
during  his  youth  in  order  to  make  the  declining 
years  easier.  It  should  also  be  to  one's  advan- 
tage to  conserve  or  build  in  a  physical  sense  for 
those  days.  It  has  been  said  that  Americans  are 
too  energetic  in  their  games  and  contests,  but  this 
can  only  be  said  of  those  who  indulge  in  special- 
ized activities  in  which  competition  is  very  keen. 
Insurance  companies  inform  us  that  the  average 
span  of  life  has  increased  from  thirty-three 
years  to  fifty-three  in  the  last  twenty  years. 
This  refutes  an  over-specialization  that  is  harm- 
ful. It  would  also  indicate  that  there  has  been 
a  very  sensible  attitude  toward  rational  exercise. 
That  there  is  a  far  more  universal  tendency  to 
take  exercise  in  some  form  is  self  evident.  Golf, 
tennis,  dancing,  hiking,  and  bathing  are  all  be- 
ing indulged  in  now  by  more  people  than  twenty 
years  ago.  The  danger  lies,  not  in  overexercise 
as  much  as  in  the  fact  that  middle  age  will 
find  people  adopting  only  seasonal  sports  and 
remaining  idle  in  out-of-season  time.  In  order 
to  keep  one's  muscle  tone  in  its  proper  condition, 
simple  enjoyable  home  exercises  should  be  taken 
regularly  every  day. 




Inasmuch  as  stretching  is  our  watch  word  we 
begin  as  usual  with  some  form  of  exercise  that 
serves  that  purpose.  Use  your  favorite  in-bed 
exercise  first  j  then,  as  soon  as  you  get  up,  Stand 
Straight  for  a  few  seconds.  In  this  position 
gradually  raise  the  arms  sideward  and  upward 
over  the  head,  have  the  palms  of  the  hands  up 
and  be  sure  that  the  chest  is  high  and  the  hands 
are  kept  pretty  well  back  of  the  shoulders.  Now 
imagine  that  you  have  a  weight  in  each  hand  and 
continue  to  raise  them  until  they  are  straight 
over  the  head,  the  palms  up  and  the  hands 
facing  the  sides  (Fig.  66).  Now  the  weight 
grows  heavier  and  you  find  that  it  pulls  your 
arms  down  to  your  sides  again.  Make  an  effort 
to  resist  this  downward  movement,  but  at  the 
same  time  allow  the  arms  to  return  to  the  orig- 
inal starting  position.  Always  remember  to 
keep  the  hands  well  back  of  a  line  drawn 
through  the  shoulders.  If  you  care  to  rise  on 
the  toes  as  the  arms  go  up  it  will  bring  into  play 
the  lower  muscles  also.  Ten  to  fifteen  times  is 
enough  to  start  with. 






Stand  erect  and  raise  your  arms  forward  to 
the  height  of  the  shoulders}  the  hands  are  the 
width  of  the  shoulders  and  palms  are  facing 
down.  Shoulders  are  square,  the  head  up  and 
chest  high  (Fig.  67).  Swing  the  arms  sideward 
keeping  them  slightly  higher  than  the  shoul- 
ders j  as  the  arms  move  turn  the  palms  up. 
When  your  hands  are  at  the  side  the  palms  are 
up  and  there  is  a  noticeable  feeling  of  strain  on 
the  upper  back  muscles.  As  you  swing  the  arms 
sideward,  raise  the  heels  from  the  floor  slightly 
and  bend  the  knees  just  a  little  (Fig.  68).  Now 
swing  the  arms  back  to  the  starting  position,  turn 
the  palms  down,  lower  the  heels  and  straighten 
the  knees.  This  is  a  very  rapid,  active  move- 
ment and  should  be  taken  about  twenty  times  in 
ten  seconds.   Forty  times  will  be  enough. 


When  you  take  up  the  Hygienic  Exercise  the 
starting  position  is  given  first  and  then  the  actual 
work  is  given  to  counts  for  simplicity.  Stand 
with  the  feet  eighteen  inches  apart,  chest  high, 
head  up,  and  place  the  finger-tips  alongside  of 
the  shoulder  muscle  on  each  side,  elbows  down 
and  close  to  the  sides  of  the  body  (Fig.  69). 
This  position  will  be  used  once  again  in  another 




Counts  are  1 ....  2 ....  3 ....  4. 

Count  1 — Begin  by  bending  forward.  The 
hands  at  the  same  time  are  extended  downward 
so  that  the  finger  tips  touch  the  floor  (Fig.  70). 
Make  the  effort  to  touch  the  floor  without  bend- 
ing the  knees. 

Count  2 — Raise  the  body  to  the  erect  position 
and  bring  the  finger  tips  to  the  shoulders  again 
(Fig.  69).  When  doing  the  arm  work  raise  the 
elbows  as  high  as  the  head,  the  body  being  erect. 
Then  with  plenty  of  force  lower  the  elbows  to 
the  sides  and  place  the  finger  tips  to  the  side  of 
the  shoulder.  You  are  now  in  the  starting  po- 

Count  3 — Extend  the  arms  straight  upward 
over  the  head,  fingers  extended  as  if  touching 
the  ceiling.  Look  up  as  you  stretch  the  arms  up 
(Fig.  71).  This  movement  is  also  a  rapid  force- 
ful one. 

Count  4 — With  a  vigorous  snap  return  the 
arms  to  the  side  of  the  shoulders.  This  exercise 
is  not  jerky  but  should  be  taken  with  plenty  of 
action  and  to  a  rather  fast  regular  count.  Ten 
times  will  be  plenty  to  start  with. 


The  imitative  exercise  for  this  lesson  is  best 
taken  while  sitting  on  the  floor.  It  may  seem 
somewhat  difficult  at  first  but  should  be  repeated 
for  a  few  mornings  until  the  whole  movement 





ROWING— Continued 

becomes  rhythmic  and  easy.  If  you  have  ever 
rowed  a  boat,  this  description  will  be  unneces- 
sary. Just  sit  on  the  floor,  or  the  bed  if  you 
wish,  and  go  through  the  motions  of  rowing. 
However,  for  those  who  are  not  acquainted  with 
the  action  of  rowing,  the  thing  to  do  is  to  sit 
down  on  the  floor.  Stretch  your  legs  out  in  front 
of  you  with  your  feet  together,  body  erect,  and 
hands  held  out  in  front  of  you  as  if  reaching  for 
your  feet.  Imagine  that  you  have  an  oar  in  your 
hands.  Now  stretch  forward  as  far  as  you  can 
go y  you  are  reaching  for  the  water  (Fig.  72). 
Now  suddenly  snap  your  hands  upward  to  about 
the  level  of  the  chest  just  as  if  you  were  catching 
the  oar  in  the  water  j  then  with  the  hands,  wrists 
and  arms  in  a  straight  line  gradually  lean  back 
as  far  as  you  can  go  without  putting  too  much 
strain  on  your  abdomen:  imagine  that  you  are 
pulling  your  oar  through  the  water.  When  you 
are  pretty  well  back,  stop  the  body  motion  and 
begin  to  pull  the  hands  up  to  the  chest  (Fig.  73). 
When  they  are  almost  touching  the  chest,  sud- 
denly snapping  the  back  of  the  hands  upward 
and  scooping  the  wrists  downward  along  the 
abdomen,  extend  them  toward  the  feet  and  let 
the  body  rise  to  its  starting  position.  During  the 
entire  movement  the  back  should  be  straight  and 
the  shoulders  well  back.  Repeat  five  or  six  times 
at  first. 




There  is  no  safe  and  sane  cure  for  obesity. 
Drugs,  even  under  the  care  of  a  physician,  are 
questionable.  Cure-alls  are  positively  danger- 
ous. Diet  is  somewhat  risky  unless  properly 
prescribed.  Exercise  is  only  of  value  in  pre- 
venting the  accumulation  of  fat.  It  is  of  some 
help  in  reduction  but  a  combination  of  diet  and 
exercise  will  be  the  safest  method  of  prevention. 
Consult  your  family  physician  for  the  proper 
form  of  diet,  and  then,  using  your  exercises  as 
prescribed  there  will  be  no  question  as  to  the 
safety  of  your  methods.  An  ounce  of  preven- 
tion is  worth  a  pound  of  cure,  or  better  still,  a 
sheaf  of  doctor's  bills. 


Stand  Straight.  Door  Edge. 



Chop  Wood. 

Horn  Pipe. 





This  exercise  should  not  be  regarded  as  an  in- 
tegral part  of  the  lesson.  It  is  given  here  only 
for  the  use  of  those  who  are  interested  in  this 
popular  pastime.  Those  who  are  not  interested 
in  cards  may  omit  it. 

There  are  many  things  that  one  wishes  to  re- 
member for  only  a  short  time,  but  which  must 
be  recalled  with  great  accuracy.  The  ability  to 
do  this  depends  on  two  things $  trained  observa- 
tion, and  the  power  of  undivided  attention  for 
the  time  being.  You  must  see  things  exactly  as 
they  are  and  you  must  not  allow  yourself  to 
think  about  anything  else.  Artificial  aids  to  the 
memory  are  not  of  the  slightest  use.  The  mem- 
ory you  have  is  strong  enough  for  all  purposes. 
All  it  needs  is  a  little  training. 

There  are  many  instances  in  which  the  ability 
to  retain  facts  for  a  temporary  period  is  particu- 
larly useful,  and  in  which  the  want  of  it  is  keenly 
felt  by  those  who  do  not  understand  its  secret. 
An  excellent  illustration  of  this  type  of  memory 
and  one  which  will  doubtless  appeal  to  a  large 
class  of  people,  is  what  is  called  "card  memory," 
which  refers  to  the  ability  to  remember  the  cards 
played  in  a  game.  One  constantly  hears  the  re- 
mark: "I  have  no  memory  for  cards,"  or;  "I 
never  can  remember  what  is  out."  There  should 
be  no  difficulty  about  this.   The  trouble  is  that 



these  people  do  not  know  how  to  go  about  cor- 
recting their  deficiency. 

Let  us  suppose  that  the  game  is  bridge,  or 
auction,  and  you  wish  to  improve  your  "card 
memory Do  not  wait  until  you  are  engaged  in 
an  actual  game,  because  other  things  will  then 
distract  your  attention.  This  attention,  based 
on  interest,  is  one  of  the  things  absolutely  essen- 
tial to  success,  but  it  must  be  cultivated  under 
favorable  circumstances,  until  such  time  as  it  be- 
comes a  pleasure,  rather  than  a  task.  Bridge 
players  learn  the  conventional  bids,  the  proper 
leads,  and  all  such  things,  in  private  lessons,  be- 
fore they  venture  to  cut  into  a  rubber  with 
strangers.  Card  memory  should  be  acquired  in 
the  same  way}  but  you  do  not  need  a  teacher j 
you  can  train  yourself. 

Let  us  see  how  we  can  apply  the  mind  to  this 
problem  of  remembering  cards,  so  that  it  shall 
act  in  accordance  with  the  principles  already  laid 
down  for  the  recollection  of  other  things.  The 
technique  of  card  memory  is  not  different  from 
that  of  any  other  memory.  All  depends  on  the 
proper  exercise  of  comparative  faculty,  upon  the 
ability  to  see  difference  and  agreement,  and  upon 
the  ability  to  classify. 

Take  a  pack  of  cards,  shuffle  thoroughly,  and 
deal  out  two  hands  of  thirteen  each.  Sort  one  of 
them  into  suits,  and  lay  it  face  up  on  the  table 
to  represent  the  dummy.    Now  sort  the  other 



thirteen  into  suits  and  hold  them  in  your  hand  as 
though  you  were  the  declarer. 

Count  up  the  number  of  cards  in  each  suit,  one 
suit  at  a  time,  in  order  to  see  of  which  suit  you 
have  the  greatest  number.  Let  us  suppose  there 
are  two  hearts  in  the  dummy  and  three  in  your 
hand.  That  would  make  five  hearts.  Four 
clubs  in  dummy  and  two  in  your  hand.  That 
would  make  it  six  clubs.  Four  diamonds  in 
dummy  and  three  in  your  hand.  That  would 
make  seven  diamonds.  Three  spades  in  dummy 
and  five  in  your  hand.  You  would  have  eight 

Now  turn  all  dummy's  cards  face  downward, 
and  see  whether  you  can  recollect  how  many 
there  were  of  each  suit  in  the  combined  hands, 
regarding  your  own  as  a  guide.  Then  turn  your 
own  cards  face  down,  and  see  if  you  can  recall 
the  manner  in  which  each  suit  was  divided  be- 
tween the  two  hands. 

Pay  more  attention  to  the  manner  in  which 
the  suits  are  divided:  the  number  in  the  dummy 
and  the  number  you  held.  Unless  you  do  this, 
your  memory  will  be  often  at  fault,  because 
there  has  been  no  comparison.  Practice  in  this 
way  for  a  few  minutes  every  day,  for  at  least  a 
week,  or  until  you  find  yourself  expert  enough 
to  recall  the  number  of  each  suit  in  each  hand 
after  you  have  looked  at  them  only  once. 

When  you  can  do  this  first  exercise  with  ease, 
shuffle  and  deal  two  hands  as  before}  but  instead 



of  counting  the  suits,  see  what  honors  you  have, 
and  compare  them  with  the  honors  that  are  out 
against  you  in  each  suit.  Suppose  dummy's 
hearts  are  ace  and  small}  yours  king,  ten  and 
small.  Observe  that  the  queen  and  jack  are 
against  you  in  hearts.  They  are  in  the  hands  of 
your  opponents.  Again ;  dummy  has  the  jack  of 
clubs }  you  have  no  honor,  so  that  ace,  king, 
queen  and  ten  are  against  you  in  clubs.  Dummy 
has  nothing  in  diamonds}  you  have  king,  ten} 
so  that  ace,  queen,  jack  are  against  you.  Dummy 
has  king,  jack  of  spades }  you  have  ace  and  little 
ones}  so  that  now  only  queen,  ten  are  against  you 
in  spades. 

Now  turn  down  dummy's  cards  and  see 
whether  you  can  recall  the  honors  it  held  in  the 
various  suits,  comparing  with  your  own  cards  as 
a  guide.  Then  turn  down  your  own  hand  also, 
and  see  whether  you  can  name  all  the  honors  in 
the  two  hands  combined,  and  how  they  were 
divided.  Never  forget  this  element  of  the  di- 
vision, both  in  the  observation  of  the  hands  and 
in  your  recollection  of  them,  because  that  is  the 
comparison,  and  it  is  the  comparison  that  fixes 
the  attention  and  makes  the  impression  which  is 
so  easy  to  recall. 

After  training  with  these  two  types  of  mem- 
ory exercise  for  a  little  while,  until  you  gain 
some  confidence,  you  should  be  ready  to  try  the 
combination  of  the  two.  Make  a  careful  com- 
parison of  dummy's  cards  with  your  own.  Now 



you  should  be  able  to  turn  down  dummy's  cards 
and  recall  both'the  number  of  each  suit  and  the 
honors  in  it.  You  can  then  try  turning  down 
your  own  cards  and  recalling  the  whole  hand. 
Having  become  fairly  proficient  in  this,  try  the 
comparison,  and  then  turn  down  both  hands 
simultaneously,  noting  how  much  of  the  distri- 
bution of  suits  and  honors  you  can  recall. 


The  next  exercise  consists  in  analyzing  the 
hand,  with  a  view  to  understanding  its  possi- 
bilities. Shuffle  and  deal  two  hands  of  thirteen 
cards  each,  sort  them,  and  place  dummy's  face 
up  before  you,  holding  the  other  thirteen  in  your 
hand.  Suppose  the  declaration  is  "no  trumps." 
It  does  not  matter  whether  that  is  the  right 
declaration  or  not,  because  that  has  nothing  to  do 
with  training  the  memory. 

Now  count  up  the  tricks  that  are  certain  in  the 
combined  hands,  and  then  look  for  those  that  are 

Let  us  suppose  that  dummy  has  king  and  two 
small  clubs  and  you  have  ace  and  one  small  club. 
It  is  manifestly  impossible  for  you  to  make 
more  than  two  tricks  in  that  suit,  no  matter  how 
you  manage  it.  Dummy  has  three  spades  to 
the  queen  and  you  have  three  to  the  jack.  You 
cannot  be  sure  of  a  spade  trick  by  any  manner  of 
play:  but  if  the  adversaries  lead  that  suit,  no 
matter  how  or  when,  you  must  make  either 



queen  or  jack.  Dummy  has  four  small  hearts j 
you  hold  ace  and  one  heart.  There  is  nothing  in 
that  suit  but  one  sure  trick.  Dummy  has  jack, 
ten,  small  in  diamonds,  while  you  hold  six  to 
the  ace,  queen.  In  that  suit  it  is  possible  to  make 
six  tricks,  if  the  king  is  on  your  right,  by  leading 
the  high  diamonds  from  the  hand  that  is  short 
in  that  suit,  after  getting  in  with  the  club  king. 

Now  turn  dummy's  cards  down  and  see  if 
you  can  recollect  these  possibilities.  After  you 
have  tried  the  experiment  a  number  of  times, 
turn  down  your  own  cards,  as  well  as  dummy's, 
and  see  if  you  cannot  recollect  the  possibilities  of 
the  combined  hands,  and  how  they  should  be 

You  should  soon  be  able  to  go  over  the  whole 
ground  after  one  good  look  at  the  two  hands, 
noting  the  distribution  of  the  suits,  the  division 
of  the  honors,  and  the  sure  and  the  possible 

After  a  little  practice  of  this  kind  every  day, 
if  you  are  really  interested  in  cards,  you  will  be 
astonished  at  the  improvement  in  your  "card 
memory."  When  you  sit  down  for  the  actual 
play  at  the  card  table,  be  sure  to  put  your  newly 
acquired  powers  to  the  test.  Take  your  time. 
All  good  players  study  the  combined  hands  care- 
fully before  they  play  to  the  first  trick.  Do  the 
same  every  time  you  get  the  declaration  and  play 
the  dummy.  This  comparison  of  the  two  hands 
is  the  whole  secret,  because  it  demands  close  and 



accurate  observation,  combined  with  attention, 
which  is  the  secret  of  all  memory. 

After  the  hand  is  over,  while  the  cards  are 
dealing  for  the  next  hand,  see  if  you  cannot 
recollect  the  salient  points  in  the  hand  you  have 
just  played.  If  you  forget  any  particular  suit, 
ask  your  partner  what  he  had  in  dummy,  and 
observe  how  you  will  instantly  recall  what  you 
had  yourself. 

When  you  are  playing  against  the  declaration, 
train  yourself  to  remember  dummy's  cards  and 
to  compare  the  cards  your  partner  leads  or  plays 
with  what  you  see  between  your  own  hand  and 
dummy.  A  simple  example:  At  no-trump,  your 
partner  leads  the  deuce  of  hearts,  showing  only 
four  in  suit.  Dummy  has  three  hearts  and  you 
have  two.   Then  the  declarer  must  hold  four. 

As  you  begin  to  feel  more  and  more  con- 
fidence in  your  "card  memory,"  you  will  try 
your  skill  on  such  inferences  as  depend  entirely 
on  memory.  Begin  with  the  hands  in  which  an 
opponent  starts  with  a  trump  declaration,  and 
say  to  yourself,  "He  has  five  of  that  suit  at 
least."  Count  the  dummy's  trumps  and  your 
own,  add  five  to  the  sum,  and  you  will  see  that 
there  is  a  limit  to  the  number  your  partner  can 
hold.  If  this  limit  is  one,  do  not  expect  him  to 
trump  a  suit  twice.  If  it  is  two,  and  trumps  have 
been  led  twice,  do  not  expect  him  to  trump  at 



By  watching  the  suits  in  which  one  player 
fails,  you  can  place  the  residue  in  the  hand  of 
the  other,  if  it  is  not  in  dummy  or  your  own 
cards.  Note  the  number,  and  towards  the  end 
of  almost  every  hand  you  will  be  able  to  recall 
the  fact  and  say  to  yourself,  for  instance,  "If 
the  declarer  has  two  clubs  left  and  no  spades, 
and  the  hearts  are  all  gone,  the  rest  of  his  hand 
is  diamonds,  and  he  must  have  three  of  them." 

Begin  with  the  trump  suit,  if  there  is  one.  If 
not,  begin  with  the  suit  you  open,  or  the  one 
with  which  your  partner  leads,  and  try  to  re- 
member every  card  in  it,  and  by  whom  played. 
Then  add  to  your  practice  a  memory  of  the  suit 
the  declarer  starts  with,  and  finally  you  will  be- 
gin to  observe  all  the  suits. 

There  is  no  great  difficulty  about  it:  it  all  de- 
pends on  whether  you  are  able  to  compare  what 
you  actually  know  of  the  cards  laid  on  the  table 
by  dummy  or  played  to  the  tricks  with  what  you 
do  not  know;  or  infer  which  is  the  remainder  of 
the  suit  still  to  come.  It  is  beside  the  mark  to 
say  that  you  have  a  good  memory  for  some 
things,  but  not  for  cards.  Your  memory  is  alike 
for  all  things  in  proportion  as  you  become  in- 
terested in  them,  and  train  your  memory  in  the 
right  way. 




1.  Write  your  name  and  address  legibly  on 
every  Progress  Sheet. 

2.  Your  number  should  appear  on  all  your 
communications,  otherwise  much  unneces- 
sary labor  devolves  on  the  staff, 

3.  Do  not  think  that  your  answer  must  be 
confined  always  to  the  space  beneath  the 
question  j  use  additional  sheets  when  you 

4.  The  Text-Books  should  be  kept  by  the 
student  for  future  reference.  Remember 
you  will  want  to  use  these  attractive  and 
durably  bound  books  for  years  to  come. 
They  will  be  a  library  of  practical  value 
for  you. 

5.  From  seven  to  ten  days  are  usually  suffi- 
cient for  the  mastery  of  a  Text-Book  and 
the  completion  of  the  Progress  Sheet,  but 
it  is  possible  to  do  these  things  in  a  briefer 
period.  Everything  depends  on  the  stu- 
dent's leisure.  There  is  no  fixed  time  for 
the  return  of  Progress  Sheets. 


Lesson  VIII,  on  Concentration,  carries  you 
another  step  further  in  the  acquisition  of  mental 
power.  About  fifty-six  per  cent,  of  university 
students,  according  to  a  recent  survey,  mentioned 
"lack  of  concentration"  as  a  difficulty  in  study- 
ing. The  study  of  the  next  lesson  will  enable 
you  to  develop  the  ability  to  concentrate.